Norway looks into regulation for land-based aquaculture [Norway]

Undercurrent News
October 24, 2014

Norway’s industry and fisheries ministry has set up an expert committee to assess what regulations should apply for land-based aquaculture.

Technology for land-based salmon production is evolving, both in Norway and abroad, noted the fisheries minister Elisabeth Aspaker. “How we manage closed facilities on land in a growth perspective is something we would like to develop further.”

Land-based farms of salmon, trout and rainbow trout are currently overseen by the same rules and licensing system that apply for sea-based fish farming.

The working group will also look at the economic consequences of new proposals for the existing salmon and trout farming industry in Norway.

It will deliver its conclusions in a report on Jan. 15, 2015, which will be part of the upcoming parliamentary report on growth in aquaculture.

Read the full article in Undercurrent News.

Posted October 24th, 2014

University of Guelph gets money for farmed salmon research

Guelph Mercury
October 21, 2014

Salmon grown in captivity are a popular fish for the kitchen table, but like all creatures they're susceptible to diseases.

University of Guelph scientist Elizabeth Boulding and colleagues are using the burgeoning science of genomics to find the genetic keys unlocking resistance and help aquaculture thrive on Canada's east and west coasts, home to salmon stocks that satisfy the consumer palate. While Atlantic salmon is native to the east, it is now also farmed on the West Coast as well.

"It's quite exciting," the integrative biology professor said Wednesday of $3.8-million in new federal and industry funding for the three-year project, announced by Minister of State for Industry Ed Holder, with Genome Canada contributing $1.2 million of the total.

Boulding, who leads the project with the Ontario Genomics Institute and Genome Atlantic, noted on the two Canadian coasts, Atlantic salmon is the main species in aquaculture, so is of vital importance.

"There's quite a demand for it," Boulding said. "It's a huge industry."

Read the full article on Guelph Mercury.

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Posted October 21st, 2014

Pesticides ‘threaten shellfish industry’ [Ireland]

Irish Examiner
October 21, 2014

The failure of Government departments to regulate fish farm-used pesticides is continuing to threaten shellfish and inshore fishing industries, along with marine wildlife, in West Cork.

A study strongly confirms the levels of aquaculture pesticides used to kill sea lice in fish farms exceed standards set to protect the environment in places such as Bantry Bay.

Researchers took samples of water, sea bed sediment and various marine organisms near Norwegian fish farms.

The samples were tested by researchers for an environmental research organisation, Norwegian Institute for Water Research, on some of the commonly used fish farm pesticides — such as diflubenzuron, teflubenzuron, emamectin benzoate, cypermethrin, and delta-methrin.

As Norway has no environmental quality standards (EQS) system, the data was compared to the thresholds set in the UK.

In many cases, concentrations exceeded the British standards set, highlighting use of the sea lice treatments was posing a threat to the environment.

For teflubenzuron in sediment, the EQS was exceeded in 67% of the samples; and levels of diflubenzuron in water exceeded the EQS in 40% of samples collected.

Researchers also note that: “A crude assessment of the concentrations detected in the shrimp collected from one location and the levels at which chronic effects are seen in shrimp would suggest that there is a potential risk to shrimp. It would also be reasonable to extrapolate this to any species that undergoes moulting during its life cycle.”

Alec O’Donovan, secretary of Save Bantry Bay — an organisation opposed to a massive fish farm in the region — said the researchers’ warnings should be heeded.

Read the full article in Irish Examiner.

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Posted October 21st, 2014

Farm-Raised Fish Have Traces of Antibiotics: The Rise of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria

Science World Report
October 21, 2014

Aquaculture has the potential to be a boon to wild fish populations. Fishing pressures can be partly relieved and allow populations to rebound. That said, there are some issues with farm-raised fish--antibiotics among them. Now, scientists have taken a closer look at the antibiotic content in farm-raised fish.

Antibiotic overuse is a serious issue in today's society. It can lead to the development of resistant microbial strains which, in turn, can pose a threat to global health. Each year, antibiotic-resistant microbes sicken about two million people in the U.S. alone and kill about 23,000 people. That's why regulating antibiotic use is crucial.

"The threat of living in a post-antibiotic era cannot be avoided without revising current practices in the use of antibiotics in animal husbandry, including aquaculture," said Rolf Halden, one of the researchers, in a news release.

In order to see exactly how prevalent antibiotic use is in aquaculture, the scientists examined the persistence of antibiotics in seafood raised by modern aquaculture. More specifically, they looked at 27 seafood samples for the presence of antibiotics. The samples represented five of the top 10 most consumed seafood varieties in the U.S., including shrimp, tilapia, catfish, swai and Atlantic salmon.

So what did they find? It turns out five antibiotics were present in detectable amounts. They found oxytetracycline in wild shrimp, farmed tilapia, farmed salmon and farmed trout. They also found 4-epioxytetracycline in farmed salmon, sulfadimethoxine in farmed shrimp, ormetoprim in farmed salmon and virginiamycin in farmed salmon that had been marketed as antibiotic-free.

Read the full article in Science World Report.

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Posted October 21st, 2014

Effects of Salmon Lice Infection on the Behaviour of Sea Trout in the Marine Phase [Norway]

The Fish Site
October 20, 2014

Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer may affect survival and growth of anadromous salmonids through physiological stress and/or behavioural changes. Using acoustic telemetry tracking, Karl Øystein Gjelland et al, Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, investigated the behaviour of 30 infected sea trout Salmo trutta throughout the summer in a fjord with very high salmon lice infection pressure

Resources are heterogeneously distributed in nature, and many animals may breed in some areas but move to other areas to forage.

In some cases these animal movements may be obligate migrations, such as for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. In other cases the migration may be facultative, as is the anadromous behaviour of brown trout Salmo trutta L. Brown trout must reproduce in freshwater, and may fulfil all parts of its life cycle in freshwater.

However, where brown trout has access to the sea, it may smoltify at a size of 12 to 25 cm and make marine foraging migrations during late spring and summer to enhance growth and reproductive potential (Elliott 1994). This phenotype is referred to as sea trout.

The survival and growth at sea are key parameters in understanding population dynamics in anadromous salmonids (Elliott 1994, Aas et al. 2011). Although the sea migration may be rewarding, it also involvesincreased predation risk and infection risk by parasites and pathogens.

Changes in infection pressure may be brought about by human activities, such as the rapid growth of the salmon farming industry in recent decades (Krkošek et al. 2011, Serra-Llinares et al. 2014).

Mapping the individual be haviour of brown trout at sea is therefore essential in describing host−parasite interactions and behavioural responses to changes in infection pressure, and may provide links between activities in the aquaculture industry and the population dynamics of wild sea trout.

Read the full article on The Fish Site.

Posted October 20th, 2014